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Hypercalcemia

Hypercalcemia refers to the abnormal increase of serum ionic calcium concentration. Since total calcium is usually measured instead of ionic calcium, we must pay attention to the factors affecting ionic calcium. Serum albumin concentration is the most important factor in clinic, because albumin is the main calcium binding protein in the blood circulation. In the case of severe decrease of serum albumin (such as in patients with malignant tumors), the normal total serum calcium concentration actually represents the abnormally increased ionic calcium concentration. PH also affects the combination of serum calcium and protein. Alkalosis can reduce the concentration of ionic calcium and acidosis can increase it. When the calcium entering the extracellular fluid (intestinal bone) exceeds the discharged calcium (intestine and kidney), hypercalcemia occurs, and the blood calcium concentration is higher than 2.75mmol/l.

Symptoms

Hyperosmolar non ketosis diabetic coma

Functional hypothalamic amenorrhea

Hyperlipoproteinemia type I

Bone marrow pancreatic syndrome

Actinic keratosis

Hyperlipidemia

Gaucher's disease

Dysfunctional uterine bleeding disease

Bacillary epithelioid angiomatosis

Heparin induced thrombocytopenia

Anemia caused by liver disease

Hypermagnesemia

Hyperimmunoglobulin E syndrome

Anemia caused by infectious diseases

Infectious thrombocytopenic purpura

Hemolytic anemia caused by high temperature

Hypercarotenemia

Myelodysplastic syndrome

mycodacterium chelonei infection

Myelopathic anemia

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