Atropine is an alkaloid extracted from belladonna, Datura, scopolamine and other plants. Its sulfate is commonly used. Atropine and anisodamine are the main alkaloids in belladonna. Datura stramonium is the flower of digitalis. Its roots, stems, leaves, flowers and fruits contain atropine, scopolamine, scopolamine, etc; The content of atropine in fruit can reach 8.33%. The alkaloids contained in the rhizome of scopolamine are mainly scopolamine, atropine and scopolamine. These drugs are absorbed rapidly through the gastrointestinal tract, and can also be inhaled in local mucosa. Most of them are destroyed by liver enzymatic hydrolysis. Within 24 hours, 4 / 5 of atropine was excreted with urine, while scopolamine was excreted slowly. Belladonna alkaloids are drugs for anti cholinergic response system, which can block the response caused by many cholinergic postganglionic fibers. Atropine can slightly excite the higher nerve center, hypothalamus and medulla oblongata, especially motor and speech functions, but a large dose can turn from excitation to inhibition. The therapeutic dose of scopolamine has a sedative effect, but it can excite the respiratory center. Atropine can resist vasodilation and sudden drop of blood pressure caused by choline drugs. Atropine and scopolamine strongly inhibit the secretion of sweat gland, salivary gland, lacrimal gland and bronchial gland; Make the iris sphincter and ciliary muscle have no effect on cholinergic nerve, resulting in pupil dilation and elevated intraocular pressure.
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