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Atrial septal defect

Atrial septal defect (ASD) is one of the most common types of congenital heart disease, second only to ventricular septal defect. It is formed by the residual patent defect on the atrial septum during embryonic development. The vast majority of atrial septal defects are single hole type, a few are multi hole type, and very few are sieve like. Atrial septal defect accounts for about 15% - 20% of congenital heart disease, and the ratio of men to women is 1.7:1. Because the symptoms of the disease are mild and the signs are not obvious in childhood, a large number of patients are not found until adulthood.


Pulmonary hypertension

Pulmonary stenosis

Sinoatrial block

Non paroxysmal atrioventricular junction tachycardia

Atrial tachycardia

AV junctional escape beats

Atrioventricular junctional premature contraction

Atrioventricular block

Atrial premature beat

Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy

Pulmonary stenosis

Pulmonary insufficiency


Friedreich ataxia

Reflex syncope

Reflux esophagitis


abdominal pain

Developmental retardation


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