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Atelectasis refers to a decrease in the volume or air content of one or more lung segments or lobes. Due to the absorption of gas in the alveoli, atelectasis is usually accompanied by the reduction of light transmittance in the affected area, and the adjacent structures (bronchus, pulmonary vessels and pulmonary stroma) gather to the atelectasis area. Sometimes consolidation of alveolar cavity and compensatory emphysema of other lung tissues can be seen. Atelectasis can be divided into congenital or acquired. Congenital atelectasis refers to the fact that there is no gas filling in the alveoli at birth. Clinically, there are serious dyspnea and cyanosis. Most children die of severe hypoxia after birth.


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